Home building standards in the UK have mandated basic access features in all new homes since 1999 (Part M of the building code). More recently there has been a move to improve on this with a new standard, Lifetime Homes. This is because the original Part M* requirements only allow for visitability and not liveability. With an ageing population it has become apparent that a higher level of accessibility is needed if people are to remain independent in their own homes. The 2013 review by Hadjri and Craig, Assessing Lifetime Homes Standards and Part M Building Regulations for Housing Design in the UK, provides some parallels to the issues we experience in Australia and the current voluntary implementation of accessible housing in Australia.
Extract from the abstract: “The aims of this article are to examine Lifetime Home Standards (LTHS) and Part M of the UK Building Regulations and to discuss how relevant and successful they are. The UK government expects all new homes to be built to LTHS by 2013. This is increasingly important with an ageing population. The home environment can enable independence and provide a therapeutic place for everyone. … This review suggests that the standards should be improved and that designers and architects face challenges to creatively incorporate them into housing design.”
Note: The Australian Network for Universal Housing Design advocates for Gold Level of the Livable Housing Australia Guidelines, which allows for ageing in place and future adaptations for people with increased disability. Margaret Ward, Convener of ANUHD, recently attended a hearing of the inquiry into outcomes of the National Disability Strategy and spoke about the issues in Australian housing and why regulation is needed.
*You can read more about the updated Part M (2016) and the three conditions from the UK Architects’ Journal, and you can download the UK Government document about dwellings (Category 1: Visitable, Category 2: Accessible and adaptable, and Category 3: Wheelchair user dwellings). Only category one is mandated for all new dwellings, the other categories are “optional requirements” and can be called up by a planning authority.
A new study from Griffith University looks at the issues of inclusive housing and neighbourhood design and the features required to include people with higher health care needs. The title is, What housing features should inform the development of housing solutions for adults with neurological disability?: A systematic review of the literature.
Abstract: Despite the recent emphasis in Australian political, academic, and legislative narratives to more actively promote real housing choice for people with high healthcare and support needs, there is a lack of understanding regarding the specific housing features that might constitute better housing solutions for this population. Inclusive housing provision in Australia rightly emphasises safety and accessibility issues but often fails to incorporate factors related to broader psychosocial elements of housing such as dwelling location, neighbourhood quality, and overall design. While the importance of these broader elements appears obvious, it is not yet clear what specific housing features relate to these elements and how they might contribute to housing solutions for people with high healthcare and support needs. For individuals with complex neurological conditions such as brain injury or cerebral palsy, who require maximum support on a daily basis yet want to live independently and away from a primary care hospital or health facility, a more detailed understanding of the housing features that might influence design and development is needed. Thus, in order to clarify the broader factors related to housing solutions for this population, a systematic review was conducted to identify and synthesise the current research evidence (post-2003) and guide future housing design and development opportunities.
You can also access this article through Research Gate
Two interesting poster presentations on home renovations in later life are available in the published program abstracts from the 21st International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics World Congress. The first is about the outcomes of planning (or not) to move to a more suitably designed house in later life, and the second is about academia working with consumers and the construction industry to introduce universal design features into home renovations and repairs.
Planning for moves in late life: who plans and how does planning influence outcomes?, shifts the focus from staying put to moving so that people can age-in-the-right place. Poor health was the main reason for not planning a move, and wanting to live closer to children was the main reason for a planned move. The abstract ends, “The current study illustrates the relative benefits of planned moves among older adults. While planning is not always possible, as in cases of sudden illness situations, older adults should be encouraged to engage in planning for residential moves by healthcare professionals to help them better adjust to a new living environment.” Read more by going to the link above.
Educating home contractors on universal design modifications: an academia and corporate collaboration, investigates whether educating homeowners about universal design influenced any repairs they made following a home insurance claim. The researchers found that almost all homeowners included UD features and this lead to a voluntary 6- week online training program to educate contractors who work with customers to discuss and promote UD with policy holders at the time of a claim. Read more by going to the link above.
A comprehensive study of home design for ageing in place by Swedish researcher Roya Bamzar provides good design guidance for modifications of existing apartments and new builds. Using the seven principles of universal design in the case study, Bamzar assesses the main rooms in the home: bedroom, bathroom, kitchen and living room. The safety features that accrue through applying UD are an important factor in reducing accidents and falls, as well as providing greater convenience and useability. Bamzar has used the 1997 original principles of universal design as a metric, but this may not be the most useful guide to measuring outcomes in this case. However, this is an important study in the area of specialised senior housing design and how modifications can improve safety, use of space, and quality of life. Over-furnishing, as shown in the picture, is a problem for many older people who are attached to their belongings and can cause difficulties for moving around the home.
The title of the article is: Assessing the safety and quality of the indoor environment of senior housing: a Swedish case study.
This paper is one of four as a result of Roya Bamzar’s doctoral thesis.
Architectural solution to sustainable, affordable and community-focused living in Melbourne, Jeremy McLeod of Breathe Architecture presents the Nightingale model.
Between urban compression and urban sprawl, Jeremy suggests an architecture of reduction, which provides moderation of these housing models. Using architecture as a catalyst to engage and generate interaction, Nightingale supports communication and community. Jeremy also explains how they side-stepped the property developer control of design and put it back in the hands of architects.
Through a triple bottom line approach – financial return, sustainable and liveable, Jeremy’s vision provides a universal design approach to the housing product.
Watch Jeremy’s TEDxStKilda talk below:
It’s unlikely that baby boomers thought about their latter years when they bought their dream home. But they are having to think about it now. The renovation industry is due for a boom, particularly those versed in age-friendly universal design features. Housing experts predicted “the great senior sell-off”. But boomers aren’t selling – they are staying put as Bruce Judd and his team at UNSW found. They like what they’ve got, and they are comfortable in their neighbourhoods. So retirement village living is less likely to attract.
Mimi Kirk in a CityLab article looked at new research from Harvard Joint Center for Housing Studies that discusses issues related to housing type, affordability and the different expectations of millennials and boomers. One other reason for boomers not selling is that millennials are not really interested in the style of homes of their parents and grandparents own. There goes the myth that boomers are (selfishly) holding onto homes that millennials could buy. Millennials are looking for smaller more affordable starter options. This also goes for boomers who want to downsize. Time for developers and builders to take note and to take up the challenge of all new homes by 2020 to be to the Livable Housing Design Guidelines.
More than any room in the house, the kitchen needs to be a place where tasks can be done easily and efficiently. Kitchens are also an important area for social interactions during meal preparation and clean up. As people age, more thought needs to go into kitchen design to overcome issues such as reaching, bending, grasping and holding. However, this should not mean a complete kitchen renovation if these issues are considered in the original kitchen design.
Kitchen Living in Later Life: Exploring Ergonomic Problems, Coping Strategies and Design Solutions is the result of research from different disciplines in the UK. As an academic paper there are some technical references, but the reports of the interviews with older people are quite revealing. Reaching and bending caused the most problems, as well as grasping and lifting. Lighting was also an issue, especially for reading the small print on packaging. The article proposes solutions, some of them related to rearranging things for ease of use.
As kitchens in the UK include a washing machine (there are no separate laundry areas in the home) the research extended to laundry tasks. Ironing proved to be the most difficult. An interesting study, particularly as we can all relate to both good and bad kitchen design and fitout. This is especially the case with, say, a broken wrist, or slipped disc, which can happen to anyone at any time.
Related topics are kitchen appliances, and the work at the University of Cambridge Inclusive Design team and their online Inclusive Design Toolkit.