The UK Government has produced a series of six posters to raise the awareness of designers of people with different digital access needs. They cover: low vision, deaf and hard of hearing, dyslexia, motor disabilities, users on the autistim spectrum and users of screen readers. The posters are divided into Do and Don’t to help keep things simple. However, downloading a copy of the poster does not seem so simple, but it can be viewed online. The content of each poster is listed on the webpage titled, The Dos and Don’ts on designing for accessibility.
The dos, that run across various posters, include using things like good colour contrasts, legible font sizes and linear layouts. While there might be some conflicts, such as some people needing bright colour contrast and others not, the guidance also advises to check with users to find the right balance. The posters have been produced in different formats to suit different users.
The Australian Government has produced a short video, Web Accessibility: what does it all mean? The first important point made in the video is that web accessibility is not about disability – web accessibility is about universality. There is no speech in the video. Instead all the messages are delivered by interesting text. At the end there is a link to more information. There is no speech in the main version, only upbeat background music and poster messages in the video below. You can get speech with the video or you can get an audio only (MP3) version. This is a great example of providing information in different formats where the original design is not universally accessible.
Another acronym has arrived: MOOC – Massive Open Online Course. These are unlimited open access courses delivered online and devised for wide participation. So now it is important to think about accessibility of these courses. Enter MOOCAP. This is a joint European project and the name stands for MOOCs for Accessibility Partnership. This project is to provide education on accessible design in ICT. MOOCAP will create free online courses that show how to “create accessible media and content, such as web sites, mobile apps and office documents”. The MOOCAP website itself is a good example of how to do things well. They also offer a wide range of specialised courses:
Intellectual disability and inclusion
Inclusive teacing and learning environments
Design Innovation: Inclusive approaches
Accessible Mobile Apps
User Interface Personalisation
User Centred Design for Accessibility
You can subscribe to their newsletter. There is detailed information on the website on each of the specialised courses.
Note: Open Educational Resources are made available under the terms of creative commons. These can be shared as long as they are attributed to the creators.
The Inclusive Design Team at Microsoft have written a thoughtful piece about artificial intelligence (AI) and inclusion. They ask, can AI be racist? What if a software algorithm for facial recognition was based on light skinned people, how would it recognise dark skinned people? Using these questions they discuss how bias in a system can cause design “missteps”. The consequences of these missteps are that trust between the design system and the user is diminished. As the digital world expands, we need to have trust in the technology and programming for it to be of social and economic benefit to us all.
Microsoft says its first inclusive design principle is to recognise exclusion and identify bias, which could apply to any design professional. The article goes on to describe five biases: Association, Dataset, Interaction, Automation, and of course Confirmation bias. An interesting article because the digital world touches all of us. So you might also be interested in Weapons of Math Destruction that discusses the role that software and its algorithms play in our lives without us realising it.
There are many resources and articles that remind us of the economic value of including people with disability and older people. Each person with disability can influence the spending decisions of another 12 to 15 people who are colleagues, family members, business owners and other service providers. Making products, services and buildings accessible is only part of the job of inclusive business. The task is completed by creating promotional materials, websites, telephone systems and customer services usable by all. The Accessible Information and Communication: A Guide for Small Business was developed by a consortium in Canada. It provides tools for small business operators to help create accessible information and promotional materials. There are checklists to help assess the current situation, some thoughts on organisational commitment and employee training, and some technical information about accessible formats. It also includes an example of an Information and Communications Accessibility Plan and implementation strategies. This is a detailed document that covers all aspects of information and communication. There is no place for “fine print”. The guide was developed in Canada by GAATES* but the content is applicable anywhere. There is also a web-based version of the document.
* Global Alliance for Accessible Technologies and Environments (GAATES).
It’s one thing to talk about colour blindness, but it is quite another to see what it looks like to the 6-10 percent of the population that have colour vision deficiency. Axess Lab has produced an excellent set of successes and failures using real life examples of colours used by web designers. These examples provide really good guidance for anyone involved in web content and design, as well as printed material. The blog page has links to more information. There is a nice pic of what a football field looks like to someone who can’t see red and green – so it’s not all about the web – it’s all around us as the picture shows. If you want to see more on this topic see ColourBlindAwareness Twitter feed.
The banner in the picture shown should read You Are Not Alone, instead it looks like, You Are Alone.
Barclays Bank has taken a new set of inclusive design principles developed by The Paciello Group, and made them their own. They’ve styled them into two posters that make it easy to see how to design for all. While these seven principles are aimed at the digital world, the principles can be applied to other fields of design. You can download the A3 poster which gives a quick overview. Or download a more detailed set of A4 posters. Barclays Bank began investing in inclusive practice many years ago but they haven’t rested on their laurels. They also encourage their business customers to get on board with accessibility. You can read more about the article from The Paciello Group website.
Which icon does what, and where will the video end up so that it can be found again? Hampus Sethfors in an Axesslab article, uses the example of trying to download a TED Talk on a smart phone for viewing later. He explains why icons are ruining interfaces He argues icons need labels otherwise users give up after a few unsuccessful tries and become unsatisfied with the app. Sethfors says, “Icons are like abstract paintings. They get different meanings for different people. It’s all through the eyes of an observer. And that ambiguity is really exciting with art. But not so much in user interfaces.” Saving space at the expense of usability is not the way to go. Sethfors also uses Instagram, Gmail, and Apple apps as examples of what not to do. He goes on to look at icons on a washing machine dial, and then to icons that really work. You can really see the difference.
People who design these things make a lot of assumptions about previous experience with instructions and ways of doing things.
Reducing cognitive load means reducing the mental effort required to do something. With so many messages coming to us on our devices and even as we walk around, we can all do with some help to sift and process the important messages. Jon Yablonski has developed seven design principles for reducing cognitive load in relation to user interfaces in the digital world. However, some of these principles can be applied to other areas of design. The seven principles make a lot of sense and are explained simply. You can go to Jon Yablonski’s website where he explains further the concept of cognitive load. The principles are:
- Avoid unnecessary elements
- Leverage common design patterns
- Eliminate unnecessary tasks
- Minimize choices
- Display choices as a group
- Strive for readability
- Use iconography with caution
Courtesy of the Axess Lab website, here are seven great free tools that help you measure color contrasts and create beautiful, accessible color schemes that fulfill the contrast requirements in the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). With almost everything in life being linked to the internet, it is important to make sure sites are fully accessible. Colour contrast is important for many with low vision, but accessibility does not have to equal boring. By going to the website you can see more on each of these seven free tools.
- Contrast Ratio
- Tanaguru Contrast Finder
- Colour Contrast Analyser – by the Paciello Group
- Color Tool at Material.IO – by Google
- Accessibility Developer Tools – by Google
- Colour Contrast – IOS APP by Userlight
- Android Accessibility Scanner – Android App by Google
You can see more about colour vision deficiency and how it affects different people by going to a previous post, Seeing Red – or it it Green?