Although not COVIDsafe, one benefit of buffet-style eating is that diners customise their meal to their specific needs or pleasures. The diner controls what options they select in order to benefit from the experience. Similarly, in teaching and learning, learning content must be provided in multiple ways and be as customisable as possible.
Representation in UDL is about making learning accessible by providing multiple ways to grasp skills and understand information.
Representation is the second principle of the Universal Design for Learning framework. It focuses on the goal of developing expert learners who are resourceful and knowledgeable. Representation regards the manner that learning and the transfer and generalisation of learning occur.
To cater to the variability of learners in how they grasp skills and understand information, learning must be represented in multiple ways. Checkpoint 1.1 in the UDL Guidelines focuses on making learning accessible through the way print and digital information is shared and perceived.
Digital information, when created effectively, provides many opportunities for flexibility. Information is controlled by the learner when features such as colour contrast, text size and positioning of pop-outs, for example, are designed to be customisable. Print materials are generally more difficult to adjust due to their static nature. However, consideration when designing, such as ensuring effective contrast, helps minimise some challenges for learners.
Practical Suggestions for Designing Web or Print Content
CAST, the Center of UDL, suggests considering the following aspects in designing digital and/or print materials:
- The size of text, images, graphs, tables, or other visual content
- The contrast between background and text or image
- The colour used for information or emphasis
- The volume or rate of speech or sound
- The speed or timing of video, animation, sound, simulations, etc.
- The layout of visual or other elements
- The font used for print materials
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) provide a single, global guide to web accessibility that meets the needs of individuals. Its recommendations cover a wide scope and greater detail than those above. Although designed to support creators to make web content more accessible to people with disabilities, the features are useful options for all learners.