Scaffolding and Strong Foundations

Building scaffolding
Scaffolding is required to activate prior knowledge, link new to existing information and connect different ideas. Image: Hans Braxmeier.

From sketch design to fully-realised dream, construction is a complex process. Creating a building from scratch requires appropriate scaffolding from the outset. Strong foundations then underpin the structure, allowing the building schema to take shape as a built form.

Not dissimilarly, learners require a number of ‘structures’ to build their knowledge and skills toolkit. Some require extensive scaffolding to shore up their educational schema, whilst others require liberties in the design of their learning to allow them to extend their thinking and advance mastery.

Regardless of the schematic development process for learners, they require opportunities to express their learning. Like a site visit to sign off on a stage of building production, learners need to perform or express and act on their learning at each stage.

Practical Strategies

Scaffolding: ensure adequate scaffolding is in place for the individual needs of each student. As mastery of a skill is gained, phase the level of scaffolding. An example of this is when segmenting sounds as part of learning to read. The student may initially use Elkonin boxes or ‘sound buttons’ to identify sound-letter correspondence. As the learner moves towards mastering segmentation, reliance on the scaffolds is released.

Guides: Students respond differently to different teachers and their interpersonal skills and teaching styles and methods. Exposing students to a range of teachers or learning mentors increases opportunities for students to make sense of their learning. An example of this is a peer tutoring or support program. Learning from, or practising with a peer provides a different perspective, potentially rewarding the learner with a new or deepened understanding.

Models and demonstrations: Another post in Lizzie’s UDL Files discusses the value in students being encouraged to communicate their learning through different modes. The same is true in teaching new concepts. There are very many ways in which most concepts can be demonstrated or modelled. Making use of a range of models increases the chance of a student finding a model that supports their schema-building. An example is in the teaching the multiplication facts. When using concrete materials to model, demonstrate using region models, arrays, physical jumps on a number line and physical grouping of objects.

Find other practical, easy-to-implement strategies for incorporating UDL strategies into learning engagements in the Universal Design for Learning section of this website. You can read more about UDL Checkpoint 5.3, Build fluencies with graduated levels of support for practice and performance.