Hospital design is evolving. We have moved from the Florence Nightingale era focused on regimes and hygiene to one of patient healing. And not just in a medical sense. Knowing that building design impacts our sense of wellbeing, we have entered the era of designing healthy health facilities. This was the topic of Michael Walker’s presentation at UD2021 Conference.
Michael’s presentation took a biophilic approach to designing health facilities. Biophilia is about increasing connection to the natural environment. This is achieved through the choice of building materials and/or direct connection to nature. He gave several examples of the design features that matter:
“Natural shapes and forms – the use of botanical and animal motifs, natural forms such as shells and spirals, egg, oval and tubular forms and shapes that generally resist straight lines and right angles.
Light and space – the use of natural, filtered or diffused light, the incorporation of shadows, warm light, spatial variability, spaciousness and the connection of inside and outside spaces.”
Other factors to consider in hospital design are:
Wayfinding: Most people can be easily overwhelmed when trying to find their way in unfamiliar surroundings.
Entrances: Arriving at a healthcare facility can be challenging for people and their carers. If arriving by car, there will be concerns about safety and wayfinding.
Reception: Areas should be clearly identified and provide people the opportunity to identify that they may need help in navigating the engagement process.
The presentation slides have more information on this aspect of designing healthy health facilities. Michael’s presentation is titled, Design Matters to Make Well Spaces, and linked closely with Stefano Scalzo’s keynote address on universal design.
Virginia Richardson ran a workshop at the UD 2021 on mapping how something gets built. Although local government is not the designer, it has many responsibilities for the project from start to finish. The question for the workshop was, how can we embed universal design in the process?
Virginia began with a graphic showing an example of the number of stakeholders involved in house building.
This concept was developed further in the workshop. It showed how many people get involved in a building project from a local government perspective.
Virginia’s slides include the Draft Universal Design Policy and associated documents for the Mornington Peninsular Shire Council.
The ATSA Independent Living Expo was held alongside the UD2021 Conference in Melbourne. I used this opportunity to discuss the upcoming construction code changes and home modifications.My presentation explained the history behind the changes and what it means for the future.
State and territory Building Ministers agreed in April 2021 to amend the National Construction Codeto include basic access features in new homes. This is meaningful social change for Australia, and time to re-think regular practice.
Major housing industry associations fought these amendments, but industry stands to gain longer term. With more suitable designs on the market, older people will be encouraged to move to a new home. Families with a disabled family member will likely be in the market as well. The amendments are included in the public comment draft which is open for comment until 2 July.
The supply of home care packages will increase and established homes will need modifications. Currently the government subsidises home modifications for this group, but modifications are not the same as renovations.
Modifications vs Renovations
Occupational therapists assess clients and decide on functional modifications as part of a home care package. They are often done in haste and have little aesthetic value due to funding constraints. Clients often refuse these modifications because of poor aesthetics and concern about devaluing their home. On the other hand, renovations usually have a designer involved. Recent research by Monash University commissioned by the Human Rights Commission, indicates that design-led modifications will gradually increase.
With basic access features already in place, modifications and renovations will become easier. Homeowners will be more willing to have modifications because it will minimise major works, and concern over the value of the home will be reduced. The NCC changes provide an opportunity for smaller builders to capitalise on this market. The Building Designers Association Australia is already on board, and has training courses to bring designers up to speed.
Powered mobility devices, such as mobility scooters, are forms of transportation, but are they considered in city planning? Little is known about these devices and their users so the likely answer is, no. Climate change is another issue. Transportation systems are turning to renewable power and there is a risk these devices will be left out due to a lack of understanding how they are used. As more electrified devices take their place in our streets, we must be sure we are including mobility scooters in planning as well.
Theresa Harada’s presentation at UD2021 Conference highlighted some of the issues scooter and powered wheelchair users face. Using some of the quotes from participants, the lessons became clear in the slides. On the one hand, mobility scooters allowed a greater freedom to get out and about. But on the other, there were times when it became difficult, such as waiting for a lift along with many others.
The presentationalso showed how others perceive disability. When one participant went from a scooter to a wheelchair, she found attitudes towards her changed dramatically.
Mass transportation is for the masses – that means it’s for everyone. With more understanding of “vulnerable” groups we need an inclusive focus within infrastructure planning. The frameworks that govern mobility have barriers to inclusion which good design will overcome. This research gave voice to those who use mobility scooters. Their voices are loud and clear in Theresa’s published paper.
There’s a lot of potential for accessible tourism in Australia, and everyone stands to win, both operators and travellers. The business case has been well researched over many years and in different countries. However, the data are not convincing many tourism operators to re-think their business model.
Nicole Healy’s presentation at UD2021 Conference covered the facts and figures. Tourism Research Australia commissioned a research project which involved Victorian and Queensland governments. Nicole listed the research objectives which included:
The size of the market and drivers and barriers
Needs of travellers with disability and their companions
The best communication channels
The best ways to support businesses and explore opportunities
The results show the potential of accessible tourism to be in the billions of dollars representing 10% of the total domestic spend. And that’s only for those who are willing to travel. Many others say it is all too hard.
Travellers with and without disability choose trips for the same reasons. Eating out and visiting family or friends are top of the list for both groups. Sightseeing, pubs, clubs, and shopping are all popular. Going to the beach was not high on the list for people with disability.
Lack of awareness of what’s on offer and not knowing what to expect were barriers to travel. Attitudes of tourism operators and staff was not encouraging either. Higher costs for people with disability were an issue as well as not enough accessible rooms.
Travellers with disability want to see better staff training and more practical information. Better access to toilets, public transport and airports were also important. More detail is available in Nicole’s presentation slides and the data report. You can download the executive summary of the Victorian and Queensland report.
Visual contrast, or luminance contrast, is a key feature of universal design, but how well can we measure it? It’s a mainstream issue and something designers need to consider from the outset. It’s one thing to know the importance of visual contrast, but knowing how to measure it is another.
Penny Galbraith explained the issues in her presentation at UD2021 Conference. For most people, vision is their most dominant sense. About 80% of our perception, learning, cognition and activities use visual cues. Contrast helps us detect objects from the background and to perceive distance. Inadequate contrast leads to confusion and difficulty negotiating the environment, even if only temporarily. Australian Standards require a certain level of luminance contrast in the built environment. But most access consultants use their own eyes as the measuring tool. Is this good enough? Probably not.
Penny took delegates through the two main measuring instruments and there is good reason for not using them. One is costly and the other is heavy and bulky. Then she introduced a free app for a smart phone called Get Luminance. While there is still more work to do on establishing the validity of the app, it gives a better guide than a guess by eyesight.
There is much to consider in Penny’s presentationand paperand it is good to see that there is a solution. Photographs are two dimensional and often provide an indication of poor contrast. If the place is unfamiliar it is sometimes difficult to make out certain features. For example, a stainless steel sign against a concrete wall.
Recommended reading for all access consultants and anyone approving designs for the built environment.
Local government rarely gets pro-active about accessible housing or Specialist Disability Accommodation (SDA). But the City of Whittlesea bucked the trend. This local government area is one of the fastest growing communities in Victoria. It also has a significant population of residents with a disability, most of whom are ineligible for SDA housing. Consequently, action was needed for mainstream accessible housing.
The Disability Housing Project was established as part of Council’s commitment to inclusion. The project identified the level of demand for both accessible and SDA housing. This information was then used to inform policy and strategic action.
Rosie Beaumont and Linda Martin-Chew tell their story of venturing into the emerging disability housing market in their presentation at the UD2021 Conference. Council wanted to explore opportunities to progress commitment to accessible and affordable housing. They involved disability advocates, housing developers, strategic and social planners and residents with disability in the project. Developers keen to get into the SDA market were not going to solve the need for accessible housing overall. This was especially the case in the rental sector.
The end result was better industry engagement to promote housing that benefits the whole community. It is an example of joining the dots between the niche of specialist housing and mainstream housing.
There is more detail in the published extended abstract, “From Niche to Mainstream: Local government and the specialist disability housing sector”.
Editor’s Note: Rosie and Linda were clearly passionate about the topic in their presentation. Whittlesea was one of only four councils that joined the campaign for mandated access features in all new housing.
The Inclusive Towns Project was a collaborative affair between Bendigo City and Lodden Shire Councils. It focused on local businesses to show how being inclusive makes economic sense. The aim was to show that improving the accessibility increased their customer base.
Nikki Williams’ presentation at UD2021 Conference had some interesting statistics. One third of complaints to the Victorian Human Rights Commission were about disability. One third of these were about employment, and another third about goods and services. Consequently, the aim of the project was to tackle equal access to goods and services and employment.
A project officer, admin support, and six casual staff with disability were appointed to run the project. It was the role of the casual staff to visit businesses and collect information about their accessibility. They followed up with an action plan and then a review.
One of the key barriers to overcome was previous poor experience with Council. They also had to overcome lack of understanding of disability in terms of employment and customers. Many businesses thought it would be expensive to make changes.
Feedback showed that solutions were easier to to implement than first thought. Businesses saw good outcomes from small changes and enjoyed positive feedback from customers.
The end result of the project is a website with information for businesses and the value of being inclusive. It also has a lot of resources.
The project also saw change both in the community and within Council. The need to build capacity with staff to understand disability better was key.
A smart city uses communication technology to enhance liveability, workability, and sustainability. While the tech gets smarter it’s not getting more accessible. The most significant barriers to inclusion are lack of leadership, policy, and awareness, and limited solutions. This was part of James Thurston’s keynote, the 5 Pillars of Inclusive Smart Cities.
James Thurston is G3ict’s Vice President for Global Strategy and Development. He previously worked for Microsoft, so he knows the territory well. His keynote presentationat UD2021 Conference showed that technology is improving but it’s not inclusive. Cities have to do a lot more if we are to meet the challenges of the digital world.
He lists the five pillars as:
Strategic Intent: inclusion strategy and leadership
Culture: citizen engagement and transparency
Governance & Process: procurement and partnerships
Technology: Global standards and solution development
Data: Data divide and solutions
These five pillars have 18 Capabilities and 27 Enablers which are explained the Smart Cities for all Toolkit. There are six key elements in the Toolkit:
Guide to Priority Standards
Guide to Adopting a Procurement Policy
Communicating the Case for Digital Inclusion
Database of Solutions
Maturity Model City Assessments
Inclusive Innovation Playbook.
You can see a 13 minute videoof a previous presentation that covers similar ground.
Stefano Scalzo was speaking fluent universal design at the UD2021 Conference. In his keynote address he showcased what the Victorian Government is doing to progress universal design in state projects. Stefano gave practical examples of how UD has been applied in real life, to real buildings for real people.
Stefano Scalzo is the Executive General Manager, Planning and Development with the Victorian Government. Their UD approach is based on their Universal Design Charter, which is:
This is not a building code compliance approach: it’s a human rights perspective and putting people first.
It’s part of the tender process
The Government’s commitment is not just a policy – it is action. Their procurement process asks prospective tenderers to tell them how they will achieve universal design. And they are promoting a culture of inclusion where UD is integrated at the beginning of every project.
Stefano explained more about the tender process and then showed us several examples of buildings that met their charter. He added that we are really just beginning and there is so much more to learn. And he challenged us to keep the conversation going. Specifically he asked delegates to commit to the conversation by:
Taking this back to your Director
Presenting to your team
Forming an advisory group
Redrafting the design
Listening – really listening – to someone with lived experience
Adopting a charter
Adjusting your process
Thinking beyond accessibility – to participation, safety, welcome
Going beyond compliance
Delivering more than a minimum standard.
It was wonderful to hear a government representative speaking fluent universal design. This is the kind of leadership we all need in Australia if we are to become truly inclusive.
Stefano shared his slidesand his speech noteswhich have a lot more detail about the work they are doing in Victoria.