Similarly to museums, a visit to a national park is an experience. So, applying universal design principles is more than just being accessible – it has to be inclusive. Mammoth Hot Springs at Yellowstone National Park is a great place for a case study.
A master’s report identified four factors for inclusive national parks: accessibility, enrichment, engagement and multi-sensory experiences. The research compared and analysed several international landscape projects before devising an extended guide to the Universal Design Guide by the American Society of Landscape Architects. The document includes many illustrations and projective designs.
The title of the report is, Yellowstone For All: Creating an immersive, universal design experience at Mammoth Hot Springs, and is by Rachel Cross.
“Universal design is an important, emerging practice that strives to create inclusive experiences for every person who visits a place, no matter their abilities. This report examined acts and guidelines currently used to inform the design of inclusive spaces, finding key gaps. The new guidelines were then applied to the projective design for Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park. The projective design illustrated new possibilities for amenities to support accessibility, enrichment, engagement, and multi-sensory elements, thus creating a more inclusive and immersive site experience. Although many aspects of universal design can be achieved in a site design, there are unique challenges that designers must address for each project.”
Cross makes an important point about incorporating universal design features into the concept design and not leaving to a later stage:
“Although universal design stresses creating spaces for complete user access, that may affect the preserved landscapes. Also, it is important to incorporate universal design strategies in the early stages of design. A big challenge to adding universal design components into projects is cost, but incorporating them into concept design and continuing to strengthen them in schematic and final design phases will only assert the value that they play.”