When governments and private enterprise fail to listen to social justice arguments it is often thought that economic arguments will win the day. This may be partially true if these arguments are allowed to be heard. “On Assessing the Costs and Benefits of Universal Design of ICT”, is another attempt at showing that universal design has cost benefits, particularly if you take the longer view.
Abstract: In the ICT and IT domains, Universal Design is typically viewed as a burden and an expense, and its application is often justified only by ethics and/or legislation. Advocates for Universal Design (UD) are arguing that it is cost-effective, but so far there are few studies that document this in a detailed way. In this work, we discuss related research and studies dealing with the costs and benefits of accessible and usable ICT solutions. In particular, we discuss the findings regarding what is a universally designed solution, what is needed to make such a solution, how much does it cost, what impact can be anticipated by the extra effort, and how it can be measured. Finally, we suggest an approach for carrying out cost-benefit analyses of developing universally designed solutions. There is a weak indication that the economical benefits of UD solutions are much higher than the initial and running costs.
I think it is problematic to talk “cost-benefit” because politically it seems it has to benefit those who are not excluded. “Cost effectiveness” is a somewhat different measure with a focus on outcomes rather than outputs. Schraner et al have developed a different model using assistive technology as a case study. Jane Bringolf, Editor.
The recent ABC science program, Catalyst, featured a new invention by Dr Jordan Nguyen. It demonstrated how a 13 year old boy living with cerebral palsy could use his eyes to directly control the lights, the fan and the television. Various environmental control systems designed for people with disability have been commercially available for many years, but these often require the use of a tablet or computer. Occupational therapists and bio-medical/rehabilitation engineers can skillfully adapt existing devices to suit individual needs.
Research on eye-tracking or eye-gaze systems is going on all the time and David Hobbs and his team at Flinders University are at the forefront of such inventions and adaptations. For those interested in some of the background to these systems, you can download their most recent publication on using low cost, portable, tablet-based systems for children.
Spectronics Australia has a catalogue of assistive technologies for children with disability, including devices using eye-gaze techniques.
While very few art apps are designed with children with disability in mind, some of the mainstream iPad and Windows apps could be useful. There is strong scientific evidence that digital art is beneficial for children both developmentally and therapeutically. Laura Diment and David Hobbs provide a review of the readily available apps that children with disability can effectively use to create visual art. They provide a table comparing the various apps, level of customisation needed, level of motor control required and level of creativity. Perhaps over time designers of these apps will consider the wider population of users and be more inclusive.
Interactive Technologies that Engage Children with Disabilities in Visual Art – A Review by Laura Diment and David Hobbs was accessed on Academia.edu. David Hobbs has a particular interest in children and assistive technologies to help enjoyment and development. He works at Flinders University in South Australia.
Google Maps and similar web and mobile apps are being used more frequently as a means of getting around easily. But the rapid growth of technology often means that accessibility for all is getting left behind. While work continues on the accessibility of the web in terms of text and graphics, maps have not attracted much research and development.
The study by Tania Calle-Jimenez and Sergio Luján-Mora presents an analysis of the barriers to the accessibility in geographic maps, and explains how technologies and tools have evolved. In their conclusions they claim to have a technical solution that enables maps and map symbols to be intepreted by a screen reader for people with low vision or who are blind. The format can describe elements such as polygons, lines and points which can be interepreted by screen readers for people with low vision.
Download Web Accessibility Barriers in Geographic Maps article from the International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering
Ability Technology has a great website providing solutions to everyday accessibility problems, with computers and mobile phones. Topics include using email, writing, reading, using the keyboard and playing games. There is also a section on environmental controls such as opening doors, operating lights, switches and air conditioners.
Ability Technology also conducts research and papers can be accessed on their website as well.
In this increasingly digitised world, the principles of universal design are becoming more of an imperative in software design. One of the basic tenets of UD is user involvement, but in software design this comes late in the development stage. Damien Gordon and Ciaran O’Leary from the Dublin Institute of Technology report on their study using the principles of universal design to form guidelines for software development. They present the study and the findings using the classic principles of universal design. Well designed graphics assist understanding.
Extract from the Abstract: “An often overlooked element of Universal Design in software design is to consider the software itself, on how it is built, and how it is formatted, using the lens of Universal Design. Given that the reality is that most code will be modified by a developer who may be unknown to the original developer, it is important that code is designed (both in terms of build and format) in such a way that it is future-proofed and therefore universally designed.”
Accessibility guidelines are in place for websites and webpages, but we need to go further and start to consider people with vision impairment who use mobile apps. Making IOS compatible with Braille is the purpose of this study. The authors conclude that a set of development guidelines are needed similar to the web guidelines for accessibility.
From the abstract: In this revolutionary time of expanding tablet use and app development, universal design and accessibility is paramount to the construction of mobile apps. Some issues in accessibility are easily identified and may be addressed at the onset of software development. However, guidelines for software development are minimal (Sapp, 2007), particularly in relationship to mobile app development. Despite efforts to create universally designed software from the onset, many issues with accessibility are unknown until the app is in use. Similarly, teachers, students, individuals with disabilities, technology specialists, parents, and users of a particular device may identify a variety of different needs and options that make an app user friendly. In some cases, the app may be fully accessible, but successful use of the software requires advanced technology skills (Sapp, 2007), and the development team must simplify the user interface. To address ease of use, the opinions of a variety of different users, especially teachers, who have varying experiences and technology skills during development is critical (Falloon, 2013). The purpose of this paper, is to share the research-based, iterative, and organic process of development that authors used to create the iBraille Challenge Mobile App.
Download Methods in Creating the iBraille Challenge Mobile App for Braille Users