Graphic policy planning

A map of south eastern Australia showing the different rates of frailty in shades of pink.“Don’t let facts get in the way of a good story”, but here’s a good story about facts. The University of Adelaide has devised a Frailty Map. These data aren’t just good for planning aged care. They should also be informing the design of our built environment including our homes. Knowing where the higher numbers of frail people live is also good for planning prevention programs to minimise the negative affects of ageing.

The interactive map documents the number of frail people in local areas in 2016 and compares it with projected figures for 2027. The story from the Australian Ageing Agenda gives a good overview and the links to the map. There is also a link to a video showing that frailty can be minimised with improved lifestyle activities. The map project follows the earlier research project into frailty.

Editor’s note: Population statistics should be informing all our social and economic policies, but the facts often get lost if vested interests are stronger.

Double Diamond: Tool for Design

Two diamonds sit side by side joined by one corner. The left hand one has discover and design, the right hand one has develop and deliver.Design isn’t just about tangible objects, it’s also about services and processes. This is where the Double Diamond of Design comes to the fore. The Design Council devised the Double Diamond as a way of graphically explaining the design process. The two diamonds represent a process of exploring an issue and then taking focused action. The key elements of this model are:

Discover. The first diamond helps people understand, rather than simply assume, what the problem is. It involves speaking to and spending time with people who are affected by the issues.
Define. The insight gathered from the discovery phase can help you to define the challenge in a different way.
Develop. The second diamond encourages people to give different answers to the clearly defined problem, seeking inspiration from elsewhere and co-designing with a range of different people.
Deliver. Delivery involves testing out different solutions at small-scale, rejecting those that will not work and improving the ones that will.

The latest iteration of the Double Diamond is available in a PDF document. This model now has a fifteen year history. The Design Council has much more on their website about their Double Diamond and how to use it.  

Do’s and Don’ts Posters

One of the six posters, mobility, showing a short list of do's and don'ts of accessibility.Six different posters help designers make online services accessible in government and elsewhere. They cover low vision, deaf and hard of hearing, dyslexia, motor disabilities, people with autism and users of screen readers. The posters are simple and this is what makes them effective. Basically they act as visual prompts to designers rather than offering technical know-how.  You can download each of the posters from the UK Government website. There’s other useful information and links too. Also available in 17 languages.

Poster for people with autism

Poster for people who use screen readers

Poster for people with low vision

Poster for people with dyslexia 

Poster for people who are Deaf or hard of hearing

Poster for people with physical or motor disabilities.

 

Co-design with older adults

A creative workshop scene. A woman is holding a pair of scissors, another is holding a pen over paper.Finding out what older people might want and need in their daily living experiences takes more than just asking them, especially if they have a cognitive impairment. A recent study found that using creative methods, such as drawing and creating models, older people can express their needs in a tactile format. This also creates rapport with designers who can then devise better mobility, dining and leisure activities. This method is enjoyable for all participants.

The title of the article is, Participatory Design with Older Adults: Exploring the Latent Needs of Young-Old and Middle-Old in Daily Living Using a Universal Design Approach. You will need institutional access for a free read. Published by SpringerLink.

Abstract: In 2017, global population aged 60 years or over reached nearly 963 million, becoming twice the figure recorded in 1980. Not surprisingly ageing population will continue to accelerate due to continuing decline in fertility and improvement in survival in major diseases. When people who are suffered from cognitive or physical impairment, they often feel alone and experience different degrees of social loneliness. This paper discusses co-design experiences with various stakeholders to explore latent needs of older persons in their daily living using a universal design approach. Through iterative use of creative methods, freehand sketching and physical models, older adults can express their needs in a more accurate, tactile format. Findings reveal that commonality of interest among older persons are important in building rapport among other participants. It also helps designers develop assistive design related to health care, mobility, dining and leisure activities involving older persons, benefiting society as a whole.

Inclusive Design: A Microsoft Perspective

A black and white graphic of stick people in various states of being.Microsoft has updated their Inclusive Design Toolkit. It’s a comprehensive guide that focuses on design principles that can be applied in any design situation. Their key advice is to recognise exclusion, solve for one and extend to many, and learn from diversity.

You can download the toolkit in sections. It also includes several case studies in the form of video clips. These are not all about websites or phone apps either. They have been chosen to help inspire all kinds of designers to think about diversity. I liked the one about Antoine, the dancer. 

Microsoft’s definition of inclusive design is a methodology, born out of digital environments, that enables and draws on the full range of human diversity. Most importantly, this means including and learning from people with a range of perspectives.

Microsoft’s design principles: Exclusion happens when we solve problems using our own biases. As Microsoft designers, we seek out those exclusions, and use them as opportunities to create new ideas and inclusive designs.  

A very useful design guide for students and practitioners alike.

What does inclusion actually mean?

Graphic of stick people in various poses with the caption, "Inclusiveness,, looking at everyoneKat Holmes found the origin of include was to “shut in”. Similarly, the origin of exclude was to “shut out”. Maybe “inclusion” is not the right word for describing the inclusion of everyone in products, places and things. Holmes explains in the video below, that the topic of diversity is discussed in her workplace as gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnicity, and race. Disability is usually mentioned last in the list, if at all. “But it is the one category that transcends all other categories”, she says. “Abilities are constantly changing”. 

Holmes’ offers an alternative way for designers to consider diversity, and is based on her book, Mismatch: How Inclusion Shapes Design. An engaging talk for all upcoming designers in any field. And not just professional designers either. We all design things every day, so we all have a role to play. 

Editor’s Note: I discussed this issue in a 2009 paper. Inclusion is problematic inasmuch as it requires those who are already included to invite into the group those who are excluded. Semantics can be important. What we need is inclusiveness – that’s where inclusion has already happened and there are no exclusions. Inclusion is a futuristic concept insofar as it is something for which we are striving, for if it were achieved, no discussion would be needed.

Design Principles to Live and Die by

A text box with a grey background and white text with the heading: 8 Design Principles to Live and Die By, According to Facebook, IBM, Pentagram and MoreThe FastCodesign website has another interesting article about design. Every designer has the principles they work by.  So they asked eight prominent designers, “What is the one principle you never compromise on?” The answers are consistent with universal design principles: Good design is both invisible and obvious; Ignore trends; Ban mediocrity, Design to elicit emotion; Articulate your purpose, honestly and explicitly; Users are people not statistics; Design thinking isn’t for designers and; Design for the big idea. See the article for the designers’ explanations.

An abstract pattern of muted blue and orange squares of different sizes.

 

Critical Design for Universal Design

Four pictures of workshop outcomes explained in the article.What happens if architecture, interior design, engineering and product design students spend a week together to investigate the design of the built environment? The answer is in a paper by Anne Britt Torkildsby. A week of critical design workshops provoked reflection, awareness, empathy and action among the next generation of designers involved in the built environment. By turning design upside down and deliberately creating designs that were impossible or difficult to use, the students learned to take multiple perspectives. The paper provides details of the workshops and the processes, and the outcomes for the students and their designs. The picture shows four of the designs discussed in the article.

Editor’s note: I liked the narrow doorway with a sticky floor that made entry difficult. The designs went on exhibition and others could experience first hand the difficulties and frustration people with different disabilities might have with a design.

The title of the paper isEmpathy Enabled by Critical Design – A New Tool in the Universal Design Toolbox. The article is from the proceedings of the UDHEIT 2018 conference held in Dublin, Ireland, an open access publication. 

Does your access map have the right colours?

A woman holds a tablet with a map on the screen, She is standing in the street.Location is everything – finding it is another.  Being able to find places easily is key to getting out and about at any age or level of capability. Online maps are becoming more sophisticated with interactive content and different layers of information. Graphics and colour are used to emphasise places and attributes. But not everyone can see certain colours. The number of people with colour vision deficiency (CVD) is growing as some people acquire it as they get older. Map Design for the Color Vision Deficient provides a background to this issue and tools for selecting the colours when designing maps. You will need institutional access for a free read.

Abstract: The golden rule of map design states that one should carefully consider both a map’s purpose and its audience. Maps designed for the general public frequently fail to consider the portion of our population with color vision impairment or color vision deficiency (CVD), known more commonly as color blindness. Recent studies indicate that over 5% of our Caucasian male population are susceptible to congenital or inherited color vision deficiency. CVD also can be acquired from chemical exposure, injury, illness, medication, and aging. With the exception of aging, little or no data exists on the number of people impaired by any of these non-congenital causes. The predominant color impairment from congenital CVD is a red-green differentiation problem, whereas blue is considered universally recognizable by the congenital group. However, recent research has revealed that as many as 20% of those studied over the age of 72 suffer from a blue-yellow defect that increases with age to nearly 50% at age 90. This acquired blue-yellow defect also is the predominant CVD for those suffering from chemical exposure. This chapter examines the effects of CVD and attempts to illustrate the impact of color choices on visually impaired audiences. It shows that the acquired CVD population is growing and suggests colors and alternatives in map design to minimize that impact. Finally, it introduces several tools that may be used in selecting appropriate colors or used to evaluate color choices when designing maps.

Inclusive illustrations: What’s in a face?

Four male and female couples with different skin tones and face shapesIf there is no photo or graphic to go with a story, it’s often left to someone else to choose a picture. Often this is a stock photo that might not convey the intended message. Stock photos of older people are often patronising: young and old hands, or a young person looking lovingly at an older person. Similarly, stock photos of wheelchair users often use non-disabled models and not people with disability. So this is a timely article and guideline from an illustrator about how to add diversity to your brand whether an organisation, service or a product. The title of the article is, Your Face Here: Creating illustration guidelines for a more inclusive visual identity.

“Words can set the tone for a company, but it’s the pictures that give it a face. Illustration has yet to find its place in the tech world, because it’s often unconsidered and thrown in on the fly. Whether being used to distill complex messages or add a touch of whimsy, illustration is one piece that makes up a company’s visual brand identity.”  There are other interesting design articles on this blog site.

Also have a look at these stock photos of older people and see what you think.