Everyone has a bias. Our biases can lead us to fall into the traps that lead to unintended barriers or inconveniences for users. Recognising biases in our outlook is the key to countering them in design processes. Airbnb Design has a tool for overcoming bias in design.
It’s a human trait to hold on to initial evidence more strongly than information we gather later on. Then we fit our interpretation of the world to match that initial evidence, regardless of what else we might learn as time passes. This can prevent the process of designing inclusively.
Airbnb Design partnered with journalists from News Deeply and came up with a toolkit for designers. Another Lens is a research tool for conscientious creatives. “We believe that both designers and journalists have the responsibility to shine a light on their bias by asking the right questions, seeking conflicting viewpoints, and expanding their lens to build inclusive, global solutions”.
Three principles underpin the thinking process: balance your bias, consider the opposite and embrace a growth mindset. All good principles for universal design thinking. The website tool is simple to use, poses critical questions and provides the thinking behind it. You can find out more on the development of this tool from the Fastcodesign website article.
Guideline 6of the Universal Design for Learning checkpoints is concerned with Executive Function. In a previous post, strategies were introduced to support memory, with a promise to develop these suggestions further. Retrieval practice to support memory is the focus of this post.
Retrieval practice is a learning strategy where we focus on getting information out. It is the act of repeatedly recalling concepts and content taught without having the information in view. Through the act of retrieval, or calling information to mind, our memory for that information is strengthened, reducing the likelihood of forgetting the information. Retrieval practice is considered a powerful strategy for improving academic performance. It does not require specific technology or incur a cost. And, it does not consume significant additional class time.
You may wonder how a student with compromised executive function manages to recall information. For retrieval practice to be successful they need to participate successfully in recalling. Scaffolding is recommended to increase retrieval success. It should be made available to any student who requires it but is of special importance to students experiencing difficulty with executive functioning and/or recall.
Simple, easy-to-implement strategies to facilitate retrieval practice include the use of:
Flashcards: a series of cards, each containing a small amount of information to prompt a specific response.
Concept Maps: a summary of key ideas that are all related to a specific topic, showing the relationship between ideas. The map is usually presented in a diagram.
Quizzes: questions are asked to prompt recall of information.
Elaborative Interrogation: a strategy where the learner is exposed to (reads, watches, listens to) a key fact or concept and then generates an explanation for it, using how and why questions to support understanding of what the information means.
Direct verbal questioning
Self-questioning: a self-monitoring strategy students use to note their understanding of a text as they read or hear it. Simple questions students ask themselves may include:
What am I supposed to be learning about?
Does what I am reading or hearing make sense?
How does this connect to what I already know?
What is new about what I am learning here?
What makes perfect sense and what am I having difficulty with?
Making notes from memory: Students record notes (verbally or written) based on their memory, trying to record as much as they can remember about the information being recalled.
Many more practical, easy-to-implement strategies for supporting executive function and accessing the curriculum are suggested in previousUDL File posts. Or check out the CAST UDL framework.
Social factors influence how people with disability choose to use their technology. So they are sometimes disadvantaged because they don’t want to be “different”. Design for Social Accessibility is an approach that encourages designers to focus on social as well as functional factors in their designs.
Using a workshop method, researchers worked with designers to bring about a change in their attitudes, and to see the effectiveness of the Design for Social Accessibility approach. The results are published in Incorporating Social Factors in Accessible Design. It is a lengthy read because it includes quotes from workshop participants and the reporting is very thorough. They conclude that accessible design is within the reach of professional designers if given appropriate tools and resources. Designing technologies for people with disability does not exclude people without disability. The focus of this study is on people with vision impairment. However, the principles are applicable to the design of any product or place. The article is open source.
Abstract:Personal technologies are rarely designed to be accessible to disabled people, partly due to the perceived challenge of including disability in design. Through design workshops, we addressed this challenge by infusing user-centered design activities with Design for Social Accessibility—a perspective emphasizing social aspects of accessibility—to investigate how professional designers can leverage social factors to include accessibility in design. We focused on how professional designers incorporated Design for Social Accessibility’s three tenets: (1) to work with users with and without visual impairments; (2) to consider social and functional factors; (3) to employ tools—a framework and method cards—to raise awareness and prompt reflection on social aspects toward accessible design. We then interviewed designers about their workshop experiences. We found DSA to be an effective set of tools and strategies incorporating social/functional and non/disabled perspectives that helped designers create accessible design.
CUDA made much progress this year and contributed to many events and community consultations. The website and social media views continued to receive good attention throughout the year. Key points from the Annual Report 2018-2019 are:
Our first online learning course, Introduction to Universal Design, had a 44% completion rate from 440 enrolments.
Preparation for and staging of the 3rd Universal Design Conference in Brisbane.
Participation in events to promote universal design, including a breakfast event organised in conjunction with Lend Lease.
Conference presentations included 4 papers at the UD conference in Dublin, Ireland, and Community Housing Industry Association Conference
Invited contributor to two magazines: Inner Sydney Voice and Building Connection.
Submissions and contributions to public policy through committee representation, roundtables and written submissions to government inquiries.
The full Annual Report can be downloaded in PDF format. The picture above is from the UD Conference in Brisbane with Lenna Klintworth at the lectern, Emily Steel, Jane Bringolf, Penny Galbraith and Chris Veitch.
Building regulation is a highly contested space, especially in relation to disability access. So the Norwegian Building Authority decided that standards and codes should be based on evidence rather than the views, compromises and experience of interest groups. The Norwegian Research Laboratory for Universal Designwas set up to focus on access solutions using established research methods. But this brings about a dilemma.
People with disability have fought for many years to have equal access to the built environment. “Some of the criteria have been based on compromises and “old truths”. These criteria are now put under scrutiny. This examination and possible reversal of minimum requirements may feel like a slap in the face of those who have fought for these rights. But what is the possible downside?”
Their research results are based on the 90th percentile. But what happens to those who are outside the 90%? Who pays for the compensatory adaptations or assistance? This is where it becomes political. Nevertheless, research by the Laboratory suggests that “those who cannot manage the minimum levels cannot manage any level”.
The title of the paper is, Deregulation of the Building Code and the Norwegian Approach to Regulation of Accessibility in the Built Environment.
Abstract: Deregulation is on the political agenda in the European countries. The Norwegian building code related to universal design and accessibility is challenged. To meet this, the Norwegian Building Authority have chosen to examine established truths and are basing their revised code on scientific research and field tests. But will this knowledge-based deregulation comply within the framework of the anti-discrimination act and, and if not: who suffers and to what extent?
Bill Forrester has a new marketing workbook for the tourist industry. It’s to help resorts, hotels and other accommodation collect key information and create an accessibility guide. It includes a detailed self audit tool to help with this. There’s lots of good tips at the beginning of the workbook that cost nothing and are easy to implement.
Saying your accommodation is “accessible” is not enough information. It means different things to different people – specific information is needed. Pictures are important too. While most disabilities are invisible, it is useful to include a person with a visible disability within a group. Pictures of rooms and facilities are important too, especially if you include room dimensions and floor plans with furniture layout.
“The workbook is not a statutory audit checklist, it is designed to be used as a “walk-through” tool to enable you to collect information on your facilities.”
“Having a tag line of “call us for accessibility information” is putting potential customers at a disadvantage over other customers searching on the internet and potentially putting your establishment at a competitive disadvantage over your competitors.”
The process for the Regulatory Impact Statement (RIS) for Accessible Housing is underway. With more consultations due soon for the RIS, it is worth refreshing our memories on the issues. Using a lot less words, a Building Connection magazine article picks out the key points of the first report by the Australian Building Codes Board. The article by Jane Bringolf is on page 16 of the online flipbook titled, A Summary of the ABCB’s Report on Mainstream Accessible Housing. The infographic shows the timeline for the project. If minimum access (universal design) features are agreed, it will be included in the 2022 edition of the National Construction Code. The related Regulatory Impact Statement (RIS) is expected to be released in June 2020.
From the Editor: This week I came across an article by John Harding who writes about rivalry between universal design and inclusive design. While I have encountered people who believe there are nuanced differences, I cannot agree that the concepts are rivals, academically or otherwise. A rivalry point of view is contrary to the work of advocacy groups striving for more inclusive societies. Indeed, “universal design” is cited in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability as the means by which to create inclusion. It is also cited by WHO guidelines for age-friendly cities.
Harding, in his dense academic paper, appears to base his argument on universal design being about the “widest range of users”, whereas inclusive design is about “offering everyone access”. He then goes on to claim that universal design is “first generation” and inclusive design is “next generation”.
Using a study of transportation in UK, Harding proposes that the “rivalry” between UD and ID hasn’t helped the cause for inclusion. I believe the barriers to inclusion are far more complex than terminology. However, terminology is very important to academics if they want to compare their work.
The paper is open access on ResearchGate. Have a look and see what you think. The title of the paper is “Agent based modelling to probe inclusive transport building design in practice”.
It should be noted that John Harding is based in the UK where they have stuck by the “inclusive design” term throughout, whereas Europe has favoured Design for All, and most other countries have followed the UN Convention and use universal design. Most academics recognise the convergence of concepts rather than rivalry.
The Digital Age has brought us Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Ambient Technologies, but can people and policies keep up with the pace of development? The 5G network brings additional promises, but will designers consider the diversity of the population, especially in algorithms? A keynote paper presented by Liz Mesthenos gives a thoughtful overview of the state of play regarding this technology and older people.
It is interesting to note that the EU “appears to be keen on free access to the internet to ensure non-exclusion…” Mestheneos cautions the use of sensors used via smart phones, web cameras, etc., for family carers to monitor a relative. Ensuring they are non-intrusive and data remain private will be a continuing issue. AI products will have to ensure they are accessible as well as secure, and are not based on existing human prejudice and assumptions.
ABSTRACT: Can ICT e.g. AAL, AI, Ambient Living technologies, really help the growing numbers of older people live better, more fulfilling lives? Or are these technologies primarily being developed for the interest of health and welfare systems and tech development experts? Have we genuinely listened to the needs of older people and reacted to their problems and needs, or are the driving forces behind innovation state budgetary limitations and the management of new and ever expanding problems? Even in the context of management, can these ICT technologies be effective or are they marginal to the management of living with dependency, long term illnesses and alone. Can and in what way do they help make older people’s lives more connected, meaningful and richer? Ensure that older people do not become objects, presenting technical problems to be solved, but people who have capacities which technology can help support. The presentation will concern the limitations of current approaches and suggest ways forward to genuinely support older people.
A new Australian study found that older people who live in separate houses walk more than those in retirement villages. The Curtin University study accounted for several factors before coming to this conclusion. It adds to the literature that for most people, staying put in your own home is the best way to age. Of course, we need homes and neighbourhoods designed to support this. While the study has some limitations, it is another angle on staying put versus age segregated living arrangements.
Abstract: Limited research has investigated the effect of housing type on older people’s physical activity, and the small amount of work to date has relied on self-reported activity levels. The aim of this study was to assess whether housing type is associated with objectively measured physical activity among community-dwelling older people. In total, 430 Australians aged 60 years and older completed a survey and wore an accelerometer for a week. Controlling for a range of confounding variables (age, gender, physical health, neighborhood walkability, and the density of open spaces in the local area), participants living in separate houses were found to engage in higher levels of activity compared with those living in retirement villages. In addition, those living in separate houses and apartments were significantly more likely to meet the physical activity guideline of 150+ min/week compared with those living in retirement villages.