University of Maryland has a neat one page with the six essential steps for accessible online content. None of it is rocket science or geeky. This ready reference just has reminders to be a bit more thoughtful about how you go about it. The aim of the six steps is to give everyone equal access to information and services. It’s simple things such as colour contrast, alt-text for pictures, and appropriately placed links to other pages – not “click here”, for example. It’s a handy reference to print out and pin up at your desk. Good for designing online-learning and adding content to an organisation’s website.
The answer to “Is your site accessible?” is sometimes, “I haven’t been asked that before” or “I’m not sure I understand what you mean”. Some website managers will quote that they are WCAG2 compliant, but that doesn’t mean they know what it’s about. Some parts of the website design might be compliant, but some of the content might not be. So things like e-books, e-learning or customised apps could pose problems when it comes to accessibility for all. An article by Andreea Demirgian takes a look at these issues and more by using real examples of online chat conversations with web operators.
A related article, Do you see what I see… Accessibility challenge – CSS! gives instructions on how to find out if the CSS of the website is a barrier to accessibilty. A bit technical but gives insights into what web design should consider. The article is by Herin Hentry of the Reserve Bank of Australia.
The European Union funded a project to find out moreabout subtitling and how best to do it for immersive media. Media accessibility usually focuses on users with disability, but this group chose not to go that route. Instead they took a broader section of participants. One of their conclusions fits with other findings on universal design – make it part of the design from the beginning. The findings from this research have recommendations that are good for everyone. One key point is that creation and production processes should have testing that includes users with diverse capabilities. The title of the article is “From disabilities to capabilities: testing subtitles in immersive environments with end users“. With more content being delivered online and the rise of virtual reality and other types of media, this is an important contribution to understanding how best to present current media, as well as media that will be developed in the future.
From the Abstract: To illustrate this point and propose a new approach to user testing in Media Accessibility in which we would move from a disability to a capability model. Testing only with people with disability brings poorer results than testing with a broader range of people. This is because subtitles (closed captions) are not just for people are deaf or hard of hearing, but for everyone. This means they should be considered a mainstream feature of video and film production, not an add on feature. The study addresses issues with vision, colour, and being able to navigate digital services to find and use the subtitles.
Screen magnifiers are used by people who have low vision. It enlarges the text and images to a size where only part of the page or picture is visible at any one time. It is not the same as using the zoom function in the browser where the layout is changed to match the width of the screen. This means users have to scroll sideways to get the content of the page.
Because only a portion of the screen is displayed, the reader could miss instructions or drop down menus. How to Make Your Website Accessible to People Who Use a Screen Magnifier, has some good tips and a short video that shows what a screen magnifier does. The tips in the article are aimed at people in charge of websites. However, it is useful to see how it works and what happens when a site design doesn’t account for screen readers. It could help us think about the way we format documents and other information for websites.
It’s worth noting that there are around ten times as many people who use magnifiers and not screen readers, but accessibility guidelines seem to focus on readers. There is more on this topic from Axess Lab.
Making images and graphs accessible is something we can all do. Once you get into the habit it’s simple. The process is called “Alt -text” or alternative text. It provides a text alternative to documents, slide shows and web pages. The WebAIM blog site gives more detail about applying text to images. In short, it does three key things:
It is read by screen readers so it’s accessible to people who are blind or have certain cognitive disabilities.
On websites it is displayed in place of the image if the image file is not loaded or when the user has chosen not to view images.
The text description can be read by search engines.
Even if you are not in charge of your organisation’s website, any pictures you provide for web content should have your description and not be left to someone else to interpret. They might get the picture out of context. The article explains more about context.
From the Editor: I describe all pictures and images on this website. This is not the same as having a caption. Two tips: No need to start the description with “A picture of…” because the screen reader knows it is a picture or graphic and announces it. End the description with a full stop. It makes the screen reader use a tone that ends the sentence rather than sounding as if it is cut off in the middle. Also, avoid “download here” or “click here” and put the link in the actual text so the screen reader and user knows what it is referring to.
Designers rarely design to exclude, but sometimes it just happens. Creating digital materials that are usable and accessible means many more people have access. Here is a book chapter that introduces readers to the ways people with disability use technology. It includes specific steps you can take and highlights the benefits of accessible design. Testing by people with disability is informative and should be included in the design process. As always, planning for accessibility from the start is always more cost-effective than fixing problems later. The title of the chapter is, “Designing for Inclusion: Ensuring Accessibility for People with Disabilities”. You will need institutional access to SpringerLink for a free read. Otherwise there is a payment option. The book is titled, “Consumer Informatics and Digital Health”.
With talk of Smart Cities, it is important for older people to be included in digital designs. Twenty-two industry built apps were evaluated in this open access study from Trinity College Dublin. Some were designed specifically for older people, and others for a broader target audience. Text re-sizing and zooming were the main issues. Overall, the apps did not meet accessibility principles of being perceivable, operable, or understandable for older people. The platforms supported accessibility settings, but for older people, finding these settings is a problem.
The article is titled, “Are Mobile Apps Usable and Accessible for Senior Citizens in Smart Cities?” It provides a comprehensive review and good conclusions. It is expected that more people will use mobile apps and computers to accomplish daily tasks and to access important information and services. This kind of study and ongoing research is therefore important.
Abstract. The population in cities is expected to exponentially grow by 2050, and so is the world population aged 65 and over. This has increased the efforts to improve citizens’ quality of life in urban areas by offering smarter and more efficient IT-based services in different domains such as health-care and transportation. Smart phones are key devices that provide a way for people to interact with the smart city services through their mobile applications (Apps). As the population is ageing and many services are now offered through mobile Apps, it is necessary to design accessible mobile interfaces that consider senior citizens’ needs. These needs are related to cognitive, perceptual, and psycho-motor changes that occur while ageing, which affect the way older people interact with a smart phone. Although a comprehensive set of design guidelines are suggested, there is no evaluation on how and to what extent they are considered during the mobile App design process. This paper evaluates the implementation of these guidelines in several industry-built Apps, which are either targeted at older people or critical city services Apps that may benefit older people, but are targeted at a broader audience.
In the world of web accessibility people often talk about screen readers. But do you know what they are and how they work? This is a very useful article for everyone who posts on a website. Nomensa blog explains that a screen reader is a software applicationthat enables people with significant vision impairment to use a computer. They work with the computer’s operating system and common applications. It relays information either by speech or Braille. The majority of users control things with the keyboard, not the mouse. The article provides more detail of each of the operating systems that link with screen readers and the applications they support. If web pages are well structured and designed using a particular code, screen readers can interact easily. The article has additional links to other information.
Vision Australia has a YouTube clip with a Jaws user explaining how it works for her. You’ll be surprised!
Buried in this paper is a comparison chart of web design features for improved accessibility for older people. Older people have been singled out in this studybecause they are most at risk of being left out of the evolving digital world which includes e-health and internet based health information. The authors have combed through several guidelines and picked out the main elements that relate to this group because the WCAG 2.0 guidelines are deficient in this area. So they have turned to organisations such as the US-based AARP for the additional design features needed to help deal with motor and cognitive issues, and low vision. The article is in both English and Spanish.
The title is: Review of accessibility and usability guidelines for website design for the elderly people
ABSTRACT: By 2050, the growth of the elderly population in Colombia is estimated at 10% and thus a greater demand for special services (such as health services) for the elderly. This justifies the exploration of digital health content as an important source of information for this population. The accessibility and usability guidelines for website design – e.g., TAW and WACG – do not have special guidelines to mitigate the motor, cognitive or visual disabilities characteristic of aging, which become a barrier for this group to consult necessary information for administrative processes that involve health. This review of accessibility and usability guidelines is presented, facilitating the consumption of special contents and generating better interactions with such systems, which will lead to the construction of guidelines based on existing recommendations that allow the development of aspects related to interaction, legibility and usability in digital content for the elderly.
At Accessibility Scotland 2018 Conference, Vasilis van Gemert described how he flipped the Paciello Group’s webInclusive Design Principlesand turned them into a set of Exclusive Design Principles. Instead of designing exclusively for ourselves, he says, he started to design tailor-made solutions for – and together with – people with disabilities. This was part of a design challenge:The Good, The Bad, and The Interesting Exclusive Design Challenge. In the video of his 30 minute talk, Vasilis shows the results of these experiments, and shares all the insights he gained during his research. The webpage has a transcriptof the talk and you can also download the slides. Basically, he looked at specific requirements that only some people need so that he could make them inclusive.